Graphic warnings labels on cigarette packs could lead to 8.6 million fewer smokers in US A paper published shows that graphic warning labels on cigarette packs led to a decrease in smoking rates in Canada of 12 percent to 20 percent from 2000 to 2009. Researchers estimate that the introduction of graphic warnings in the United States could lead to a decrease of between 5.3 and 8.6 million smokers. via ScienceDaily: Living Well News: Nov. 25, 2013 — A research paper published in the scientific journal Tobacco Control, “Cigarette graphic warning labels and smoking prevalence in Canada: a critical examination and reformulation of the FDA regulatory impact analysis,” shows that graphic warning labels on cigarette packs led to a decrease in smoking rates in Canada of between 12% and 20% from 2000 to 2009. The authors estimate that if the same model was applied to the United States, the introduction of graphic warnings would potentially lead to a decrease of between 5.3 and 8.6 million smokers.FDA model under-estimated the health impact of graphic warningsIn 2011 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) estimated the impact of graphic warning labels on U.S. smoking rates, based on Canada’s experience. This analysis was a key factor in an August 2012 decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit that found that the FDA’s analysis “essentially concedes the agency lacks any evidence that the graphic warnings are likely to reduce smoking rates.” The authors of this new scientific paper — led by Jidong Huang and Frank J. Chaloupka of theUniversity of Illinois at Chicago and Geoffrey T. Fong of the University of Waterloo and the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research in Canada — assert that the model used by the FDA significantly under-estimated the actual impact of graphic warning labels. Using statistical methods to compare smoking rates in Canada nine years before and nine years after the introduction of graphic warnings, researchers found that:smoking rates in Canada decreased more sharply after the introduction of graphic warnings, and the sharper decrease in smoking rates in Canada was greater than the difference in smoking rates during the same two nine-year periods in the United States,where there was no change in the warnings. … For more info: Graphic warnings labels on cigarette packs could lead to 8.6 million fewer smokers in US ScienceDaily: Living Well News Graphic warnings labels on cigarette packs could lead to 8.6 million fewer smokers in US L’articolo Graphic warnings labels on cigarette packs could lead to 8.6 million fewer smokers in US sembra essere il primo su My Biologica.
Desiderate tanto avere un’acconciatura particolare e vi siete accorti che le trecce sono davvero all’ultima moda. Quella a cerchietto è proprio la treccia che per sua natura passa da un orecchio all’altro fermando i capelli come se fosse un cerchiettino. Lo diciamo subito, prima di spiegarne la realizzazione: è complicata. Conviene sempre farsi aiutare da un’amica abile e avere capelli lunghi e lisci. Quest’acconciatura può essere perfetta anche il giorno delle nozze: dà alla sposa un’aria abbastanza semplice, curata e giovanile. Pensateci.Continua a leggere Come si fa una treccia a cerchietto con i capelli sciolti…Commenta » L’articolo Come si fa una treccia a cerchietto con i capelli sciolti sembra essere il primo su Italyan Style.
Sudden steep drop in blood pressure may predict atrial fibrillation years later Results of a study have identified a possible link between a history of sudden drops in blood pressure and the most common form of irregular heartbeat. via ScienceDaily: Living Well News: Nov. 20, 2013 — Results of a Johns Hopkins-led study have identified a possible link between a history of sudden drops in blood pressure and the most common form of irregular heartbeat.The study suggests that a bout of orthostatic hypotension — a steep blood pressure drop that occurs when a person stands up after a period of lying down — appears to be associated with an overall 40 percent increase in the risk of developing atrial fibrillation over the following two decades.While a simple, inexpensive doctor’s office test can check for orthostatic hypotension, the researchers caution that the condition itself does not generally need treatment, nor have they demonstrated that it is a cause of atrial fibrillation.They further note that because atrial fibrillation is often present without causing noticeable symptoms, some people may already have the rhythm disturbance before an episode of orthostatic hypotension, though they tried to exclude those subjects from the study.But the researchers say their findings do suggest the need for further study and that clinicians who diagnose orthostatic hypotension in their patients need to be more vigilant than they otherwise might be in watching out for atrial fibrillation. The arrhythmia is an underdiagnosed condition that increases the risk of stroke fivefold, as well as risks of heart failure and dementia. People with atrial fibrillation are often treated with blood thinners to reduce the risk of stroke, and with other medications that regulate the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat. The findings were published last week in the journal PLOS ONE.“We hope our research will sensitize physicians to a possible link between orthostatic hypotension and atrial fibrillation, and that they will go the extra step to see if something more serious is going on when patients experience rapid blood pressure fluctuations,” says study leader Sunil K. Agarwal, M.D., M.P.H., Ph.D., a fellow in the Division of General Internal Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. “We want this on their radar screens.”For the study, the researchers followed 12,071 African-American and white men and women ages 45 to 64 years who were enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risks in Communities (ARIC) study. From 1987 to 1989, each subject had a baseline visit during which information on socioeconomic indicators, medical history, family history, cardiovascular disease risk factors, serum chemistries, electrocardiograms (ECGs), medication use and anthropometrics was collected. Three follow-up visits were conducted, as well as annual telephone interviews and active surveillance of hospitalizations and death.Five percent of the subjects (603 of them) were diagnosed with a rapid drop in blood pressure when going from lying down to standing up. The authors defined orthostatic hypotension as a 20 mmHg or greater drop in systolic blood pressure or a dip of at least 10 mmHg in diastolic pressure. … For more info: Sudden steep drop in blood pressure may predict atrial fibrillation years later ScienceDaily: Living Well News Sudden steep drop in blood pressure may predict atrial fibrillation years later L’articolo Sudden steep drop in blood pressure may predict atrial fibrillation years later sembra essere il primo su My Biologica.